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Book Description Alpha Edition, New Book. Firtha few words and phrases have been modified. The contents of the books are as follows: Book 1: Table of contents of the others and of authorities; Book 2: Mathematical and metrological survey of the universe;. Pliny' s Natural history.

The famous islands of Delos and Rhodes are recorded in history as having been born from the sea long ago, and subsequently smaller ones, Anaphe beyond Melos, Neae between Lemnos and the Dardanelles, Halone between Lebedos and Teos, Thera and Therasia among the Cyclades in the 4th year of the th Olympiad; also in the same group Hiera, which.

Ships from and sold by Amazon. Pliny, the Elder: Natural history; an account by a Roman of what Romans knew and did and valued. This is volume 1, only book 1 to This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible.

Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. It is one of the largest single works to have survived from the Roman empire to the modern day and purports to cover the entire field of ancient knowledge, based on the best authorities available to Pliny. Page - The name which these stones bear, originates, it is said, in the peculiar tint of their brilliancy, which, after closely approaching the colour of wine, passes off into a violet without being fully pronounced ; or else, according to some authorities, in the fact that in their purple there is something that falls short of a fiery colour, the tints fading off and inclining to the.

By Martin Folkes, Esquire, Pr. Pdf: This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. Full text of " Pliny' s Natural history. Click on the L symbols to go the Latin text of each letter. Natural History, encyclopaedic scientific work of dubious accuracy by Pliny the Elder, completed in 77 ce as Naturae historiae and conventionally known as Naturalis historia.

Alia saepius uri. In thirty- seven books".

Pliny's Natural History. In Thirty-seven Books, Томи 1 – 3

Natural History of Pliny - Vol. Pliny natural history book 2 pdf The natural history of. A translation of Pliny' s Letters, Book 2. Accipit harenas, ex quibus aliubi vitrum, aliubi argentum, aliubi minium, aliubi plumbi genera, aliubi pigmenta, aliubi medicamenta fundit. The various kinds of insects.

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Folkes and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks. What is outside it does not concern men. Pliny wrote the first ten books in AD 77, and was engaged on revising the rest during the two remaining years of his life.

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The work was probably published with little revision by the author's nephew Pliny the Younger, who, when telling the story of a tame dolphin and describing the floating islands of the Vadimonian Lake thirty years later, [4] [32] has apparently forgotten that both are to be found in his uncle's work. The absence of the author's final revision may explain many errors, [4] including why the text is as John Healy writes "disjointed, discontinuous and not in a logical order"; [35] and as early as , Petrarch complained about the corrupt state of the text, referring to copying errors made between the ninth and eleventh centuries.

About the middle of the 3rd century, an abstract of the geographical portions of Pliny's work was produced by Solinus. However, Bede updated and corrected Pliny on the tides.

Natural History (Rackham, Jones, & Eichholz) - Wikisource, the free online library

In Robert of Cricklade wrote the Defloratio Historiae Naturalis Plinii Secundi consisting of nine books of selections taken from an ancient manuscript. The work was one of the first classical manuscripts to be printed , at Venice in by Johann and Wendelin of Speyer , but J. Healy described the translation as "distinctly imperfect".

Philemon Holland made an influential translation of much of the work into English in Riley made a complete translation in The Natural History is generally divided into the organic plants and animals and the inorganic matter, although there are frequent digressions in each section. Its description of metals and minerals is valued for its detail in the history of science , being the most extensive compilation still available from the ancient world.

The first topic covered is Astronomy, in Book II. Pliny starts with the known universe, roundly criticising attempts at cosmology as madness, including the view that there are countless other worlds than the Earth. He doubts the four Aristotelian elements, fire, earth, air and water, [42] but records the seven "planets" including the sun and moon. Book II continues with natural meteorological events lower in the sky, including the winds, weather, whirlwinds, lightning, and rainbows. Book VII discusses the human race, covering anthropology and ethnography , aspects of human physiology and assorted matters such as the greatness of Julius Caesar , outstanding people such as Hippocrates and Asclepiades , happiness and fortune.

The encyclopedia mentions different sources of purple dye, particularly the murex snail, the highly prized source of Tyrian purple. It describes the elephant and hippopotamus in detail, as well as the value and origin of the pearl and the invention of fish farming and oyster farming. The keeping of aquariums was a popular pastime of the rich, and Pliny provides anecdotes of the problems of owners becoming too closely attached to their fish.

Pliny correctly identifies the origin of amber as the fossilised resin of pine trees. Evidence cited includes the fact that some samples exhibit encapsulated insects, a feature readily explained by the presence of a viscous resin. Pliny refers to the way in which it exerts a charge when rubbed, a property well known to Theophrastus. He devotes considerable space to bees , which he admires for their industry, organisation, and honey , discussing the significance of the queen bee and the use of smoke by beekeepers at the hive to collect honeycomb.

He praises the song of the nightingale. The manufacture of papyrus and the various grades of papyrus available to Romans are described.


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The vine, viticulture and varieties of grape are discussed in Book XIV, while Book XV covers the olive tree in detail, [53] followed by other trees including the apple and pear, [54] fig, [55] cherry, [56] myrtle and laurel , [57] among others. Pliny gives special attention to spices, such as pepper , ginger , and cane sugar. He mentions different varieties of pepper, whose values are comparable with that of gold and silver, while sugar is noted only for its medicinal value.

He is critical of perfumes : "Perfumes are the most pointless of luxuries, for pearls and jewels are at least passed on to one's heirs, and clothes last for a time, but perfumes lose their fragrance and perish as soon as they are used. Other substances added include myrrh , cinnamon , and balsam gum.

Pliny lists over drugs, compared to in Dioscorides 's De Materia Medica , in Theophrastus, and in Galen. Pliny addresses magic in Book XXX. He is critical of the Magi, attacking astrology , and suggesting that magic originated in medicine, creeping in by pretending to offer health. He names Zoroaster of Ancient Persia as the source of magical ideas. He states that Pythagoras , Empedocles , Democritus and Plato all travelled abroad to learn magic, remarking that it was surprising anyone accepted the doctrines they brought back, and that medicine of Hippocrates and magic of Democritus should have flourished simultaneously at the time of the Peloponnesian War.

Pliny's work includes discussion of all known cultivated crops and vegetables, as well as herbs and remedies derived from them. He describes machines used in cultivation and processing the crops. For example, he describes a simple mechanical reaper that cut the ears of wheat and barley without the straw and was pushed by oxen Book XVIII, chapter It is depicted on a bas-relief found at Trier from the later Roman period.

He also describes how grain is ground using a pestle, a hand-mill, or a mill driven by water wheels , as found in Roman water mills across the Empire. He is critical of greed for gold, such as the absurdity of using the metal for coins in the early Republic. He gives examples of the way rulers proclaimed their prowess by exhibiting gold looted from their campaigns, such as that by Claudius after conquering Britain, and tells the stories of Midas and Croesus.

He discusses why gold is unique in its malleability and ductility , far greater than any other metal. The examples given are its ability to be beaten into fine foil with just one ounce, producing leaves four inches square. Fine gold wire can be woven into cloth, although imperial clothes usually combined it with natural fibres like wool.

Pliny The Elder - The Natural History Volume One: Book 1, Dedication

He once saw Agrippina the Younger , wife of Claudius, at a public show on the Fucine Lake involving a naval battle, wearing a military cloak made of gold. He rejects Herodotus's claims of Indian gold obtained by ants or dug up by griffins in Scythia. Silver , he writes, does not occur in native form and has to be mined, usually occurring with lead ores.

Spain produced the most silver in his time, many of the mines having been started by Hannibal. One of the largest had galleries running up to two miles into the mountain, while men worked day and night draining the mine in shifts. Pliny is probably referring to the reverse overshot water-wheels operated by treadmill and found in Roman mines. Britain, he says, is very rich in lead, which is found on the surface at many places, and thus very easy to extract; production was so high that a law was passed attempting to restrict mining.

Fraud and forgery are described in detail; in particular coin counterfeiting by mixing copper with silver, or even admixture with iron. Tests had been developed for counterfeit coins and proved very popular with the victims, mostly ordinary people. He deals with the liquid metal mercury, also found in silver mines. He records that it is toxic, and amalgamates with gold, so is used for refining and extracting that metal. He says mercury is used for gilding copper, while antimony is found in silver mines and is used as an eyebrow cosmetic.

The main ore of mercury is cinnabar , long used as a pigment by painters. He says that the colour is similar to scolecium , probably the kermes insect. Copper and bronze are, says Pliny, most famous for their use in statues including colossi, gigantic statues as tall as towers, the most famous being the Colossus of Rhodes. He personally saw the massive statue of Nero in Rome, which was removed after the emperor's death. The face of the statue was modified shortly after Nero's death during Vespasian's reign, to make it a statue of Sol.

Hadrian moved it, with the help of the architect Decrianus and 24 elephants, to a position next to the Flavian Amphitheatre now called the Colosseum.

Pliny, The Elder (23–79 CE)

Pliny gives a special place to iron, distinguishing the hardness of steel from what is now called wrought iron , a softer grade. He is scathing about the use of iron in warfare. The topic concentrates on the most valuable gemstones, and he criticises the obsession with luxury products such as engraved gems and hardstone carvings. He provides a thorough discussion of the properties of fluorspar , noting that it is carved into vases and other decorative objects. Pliny moves into crystallography and mineralogy , describing the octahedral shape of the diamond and recording that diamond dust is used by gem engravers to cut and polish other gems, owing to its great hardness.