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From quite a few angles, they remap the Americas as a multicultural and multiracial hemisphere, with a standard background of colonialism, slavery, racism, and racial and cultural hybridity.

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Free download. It was only after the destruction of the Dyke and the dispersion of the Sabaeans who built it a that the Himyarites, with their capital Zafar at a later period, an'i became the rulers of Yemen. The first Tubba', by which name the Himyarite kings are known to Muhammadan writers, was Hdrith, called al-Ri'ish, i. Miiller in S. Vienna, l88i , vol. The verses are quoted with some textual differences by Yaqiit, Mu'jam al-Bulddn, ed.

Prince of Saba, caused the mountain Balaq to be pierced and erected the flood-gates called Rahab for convenience of irrigation. Muller, loc. All day long the horizons led him onward,' All night through he watched the stars and never tired. Similarly, among the Tubba's we find the Queen of Sheba, whose adventures with Solomon are related in the twenty- seventh chapter of the Koran. Although Muh- ammad himself did not mention her name or lineage, his interpreters were equal to the occasion and revealed her as Bilqfs, the daughter of Sharihil Sharahbll. The national hero of South Arabian legend is the Tubba'.

If I may step for a moment outside the province of literary history to discuss the mythology of these verses, it seems to me more than probable that Dhu 'l-Qarnaj'n is a personification of the Sabasan divinity 'Athtar, who represents "sweet Hesper-Phosphor, double name" see D. The Minasan inscriptions have " 'Athtar of the setting and 'Athtar of the rising " ibid. Moreover, in the older inscriptions 'Athtar and Almaqa are always mentioned together and Almaqa, which ;.

For qarn in the sense of ray or ' '. Philologie, Part I, p. I think there is little doubt that Dhu 'l-Qarnayn and Bilqis may be added to the examples ibid.

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Hassan b. Thabit, the author of these lines, was contemporary with Muhammad, to whose cause he devoted what poetical talent he possessed. In the verses imme- diately preceding those translated above he claims to be a descendant of Qahtan. As'ad Kdmil, or, as he is sometimes called, Abi Karib. Even at the present day, says Von Kremer, his memory is kept alive, and still haunts the ruins of his palace at Zafdr. As'ad Kamil. Whilst all to thee seems ordered fair, Lo, Fate hath wrought confusion there.

Against a thing foredoomed to be Nor cunning nor caution helpeth thee. Now a marvellous tale will I recite Trust me to know and tell it aright. Once on a time was a boy of Asd Who became the king of the land at last, Born in Hamdan, a villager The name of that village was Khamir. This lad in the pride of youth defied His friends, and they with scorn replied. None guessed his worth till he was grown Ready to spring. The Arabic text which he published afterwards in Altarabische Gedichte ueber die Volkssage von Jemen, p.

I have followed Von Kremer's interpretation except when it seemed to me to be manifestly untenable. The reader will have no difficulty in believing that this poem was meant to be recited by a wandering minstrel to the hearers that gathered round him at nightfall. It may well be the. Sharya see p. Rabi'a b. Mufarrigh f a. His people knew not where he strayed ; They had seen him only yesternight, For his youth and wildness they held him light.

The wretches Him they never missed! O the fear that fell on his heart when he Saw beside him the witches three! The eldest came with many a brew In some was blood, blood-dark their hue. She gave him the cup, nor he did shrink The' he reeled as he drained the magic drink. Then the second yelled at him. Her he faced Like a lion with anger in his breast. But the brute so fiercely flung him away. With deep, deep wounds on the earth he lay. Then came the youngest and tended him On a soft bed, while her eyes did swim In tears ; but he averted his face And sought a rougher resting-place :.

Such paramour he deemed too base. And himthought, in anguish lying there. That needles underneath him were. Now when they had marked his mien so bold, Victory in all things they foretold. But see Hamdani, Jaziratu 'l-'Arab, p. Thy sword and spear the foe shall rue When his gashes let the daylight through; And blood shall flow on every hand What time thou marchest from land to land. By us be counselled stay not within :. To thee shall dalliance ne'er be dear, Thy foes shall see thee before they hear. Desire moved to encounter thee, Noble prince, us witches three.

Not jest, but earnest on thee we tried, And well didst thou the proof abide. As'ad went home and told his folk What he had seen, but no heed they took. On the tenth day he set out again And fared to Zafar with thoughts in his brain.

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There fortune raised him to high renown :. Thus found we the tale in memory stored, And Almighty is the Lord. Praise be to God who liveth aye, The Glorious to whom all men pray! Legend makes As'ad the hero of a brilliant expedition to Persia, where he defeated the general sent against him by the Arsacids, and penetrated to the Caspian Sea. On his way home he marched through the Hijdz, and having learned that his son, whom he left behind in Medina, had been treacherously murdered, he resolved to take a terrible vengeance on the people of that city.

They answered "Tis ' :. On departing from Medina he followed them in their religion. So on compre- hending what they proposed, he sent to the two Rabbins to ask them about the affair. They replied These folk intend naught : '. If thou do that to which they invite thee, thou and those with thee vsdll surely perish together. They said ' Thou wilt do as its people do make : ' the circuit thereof, and magnify and honour it, and shave thy head, and humble thyself before it, until thou go forth from its precinct.

The king perceived that their advice was good and their tale true. He ordered the Hudhalites to approach, and cut off their hands and feet. Then he continued his march to Mecca, where he made the circuit of the temple, sacrificed camels, and shaved his head. According to what is told, he stayed six days at Mecca, feasting the inhabitants with the flesh of camels.

And the fire blazed up, and the Yemenites shrank back from it as it approached them, and were afraid, but the bystanders urged. So they held out until the fire enveloped them and consumed the idols and images and the men of Himyar, the bearers thereof ; but the Rabbins came forth safe and sound, their brows moist with sweat, and the scriptures were still hanging on their necks.

Thereupon the Himyarites con- sented to adopt the king's religion, and this was the cause of Judaism being established in Yemen. Oft indeed are the mighty abased, and often likewise Are the base exalted such is Man who is born and dies. Siidarabische Sage, p. And have my wine-skins and Yemen robes in the tomb with me. In connection with Ghaymdn a few words may be added respecting the castles in Yemen, of which the ruined skeletons rising from solitary heights seem still to frown of Yeme" defiance upon the passing traveller.

Two thou- sand years ago, and probably long before, they were occupied by powerful barons, more or less independent, who in later times, when the Himyarite Empire had begun to decline, always elected, and occasionally deposed, their royal master. Of these castles the geographer Hamdani has given a detailed account in the eighth book of his great work on the history and antiquities of Yemen entitled the Iklil, or 'Crown,' 3 The oldest and most celebrated was Ghumddn, the citadel of San'a. It is described as a huge edifice of twenty stories, each story ten cubits high.

The four facades were built with stone of different colours, white, black, green, and red. On the top story was a chamber which had windows of marble framed with ebony and planewood. Its roof was a slab of pellucid marble, so that when the lord of Ghumdan lay on his couch he saw the birds fly overhead, and could distinguish a raven from a kite.

At each corner stood a brazen lion, and when the wind blew. Von Kramer translates in his notes to the Arabic text, p. I therefore take khlldn plural of khdl in the meaning of soft stuffs of Yemen,' and read zuqqdn plural of ziqq. The adventure of As'ad Kimil with the three witches must have recalled to every reader certain scenes in Macbeth. Curiously enough, in the history of his son Hassin an incident is related which offers march of a striking parallel to the Birnam Wood.

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Tasm and Jadis have already been men- tioned. On the massacre of the former tribe by the latter, a single Tasmite named Ribih b. Murra made his escape and took refuge with the Tubba' Hassin, whom he persuaded to lead an expedition against the murderers. Now Ribdh's sister had married a man of Jadis. Her name was i-Yamima. ZarqA'u '1-Yamdma i. Hassdn therefore bade his horsemen hold in front of them leafy branches which they tore down from the trees.

They advanced thus hidden, and towards evening, when they had come within a day's journey, Zarqd said to her people : " I. Next morning Hassan fell upon them and put the whole tribe to the sword. The warlike expeditions to which Hassdn devoted all his. The assassin. Sleep deserted him, and in his remorse he began to execute the conspirators one after another.

Finding his. Afterwards, imagining that Dhu Ru'ayn had joined in the he gave orders for his fatal plot,. Ru'ayn, " did not I tell thee what the crime involved? Is he alone whose eyelids close in rest. On reading this, 'Amr recognised that Dhii Ru'ayn had spoken the truth, and he spared his life. With 'Amr Tubba' dynasty comes to an end. The the succeeding kings were elected by eight of the most powerful barons, who in reality were independent princes, each ruling in his strong castle over as many vassals and retainers as he could bring into subjection. During this period the Abyssinians conquered at least some part of the country, and Christian viceroys were sent by the Najashi Negus to govern it in his name.

At last Dhii Nuwas, a descendant of the Tubba' As'ad Kdmil, crushed the rebellious barons and made himself unquestioned monarch of Yemen. A fanatical adherent of Judaism, he resolved to stamp out Christianity in Dhu Nuwas. The Himyarites flocked to his standard, not so much from religious motives as from hatred of the Abyssinians. The pretended murder of two Jewish children gave Dhii Nuwds a plausible caius belli.

Manv Najran A. Justinus accordingly wrote a letter to the Najashi, desiring him to take action, and ere long an Abyssinian army, 70, strong, under the command of Arydt, disembarked in Yemen. Dhu Nuwds could not count on the loyalty of the Himyarite nobles ; his troops melted away. Then he plunged into the waves and nothing more of him was seen. Hence- forth Yemen appears in Pre-islamic history only as an Abys- sinian dependency or as a Persian protectorate. The events now to be related form the prologue to a new drama in which South Arabia, so far from being the centre of interest, plays an almost insignificant r61e.

He slaughtered a third part of the males, laid waste a third part of the land, and. Having reduced the Yemenites to submission and re-established order, he held the position of viceroy. Tabari, i, , I. Then mutiny broke out in the Abyssinian army of occupation, and was disputed by an ofiScer, named his authority Abraha. When the rivals faced each other, Abraha said to Aryat " What will it avail you to engage the Abyssinians in a civil war that will leave none of them alive?

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Fight it out with me, and let the troops follow the victor. When the duel began, Aryat thrust his spear with the intention of piercing Abraha' s brain, but it glanced off his forehead, slitting his eyelid, nose, and lip hence the name, al- Ashram, by which Abraha was afterwards known and ere ;.

Thus Abraha found himself commander-in-chief of the Abyssinian army, but the Najashi was enraged and swore not to rest until he set foot on the soil of Yemen and cut off the rebel's forelock. We quarrelled over thy command, both of us owing allegiance to thee, but I had more strength than he to command the Abyssinians and keep discipline and exert authority. When I heard of the king's oath, I shore my head, and now I send him a sack of the earth of Yemen that he may put it under his feet and fulfil his oath.

Then Abraha buUt the church.

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This letter made much talk, and a man of the Banu Fuqaym, one of those who arranged the calendar, was angered by what he learned of Abraha's purpose so he went into ;. When Abraha heard that the author of the outrage belonged to the people of the Temple in Mecca, and that he meant to show thereby his scorn and contempt for the new foundation, he waxed wroth and swore that he would march against the Temple and lay it in ruins.

The disastrous failure of this expedition, which took place in the year of the Elephant a. The sons of Abraha, Yaqsiim and Masriiq, bore heavily on the Arabs. Dhl Yazan resolved to seek foreign intervention. His choice lay between the Byzantine and Persian empires, Yaian. Disappointed there, he induced the Arab king of Hfra, who was under Persian suzerainty, to present him at the court of Madd'in Ctesiphon.

How he won audience of the Sdsinian monarch, Nushirwan, surnamed the Just, and tempted him by an ingenious trick to raise a force of eight hundred condemned felons, who were set free and shipped to Yemen under the command of an aged general ; how they literally. Leaving the once mighty kingdom of Yemen thus pitiably and for ever fallen from its high estate, we turn northward into the main stream of Arabian history. Professor Brojyne's Literary History of Persia, vol. The importance of this, virtu-. These are of less value, as they seldom explain themselves, while the commentary attached to them is the work of scholars bent on explaining them at all costs, though in many cases their true meaning could only be con- jectured and the circumstances of their origin had been entirely forgotten.

Notwithstanding this very pardonable excess of zeal, we could ill afford to lose the celebrated collections. Since the art of writing was neither understood nor practised by the heathen Arabs in general, was impossible that Prose, as a literary form, should it. The germs of Arabic Prose, however, may be traced back to the Jdhiliyya. A vast number of such stories some unmistakably genuine, others bearing the stamp of fiction are preserved in various literary, historical, and geographical works composed under the 'Abbasid Caliphate, especially in the Kitdbu '1-Aghant Book.

It comprises all that. So far as I am aware, no other book can be put on a level with it in this respect. It is the. In the following pages I shall not attempt to set in due order and connection the confused mass of poetry and legend in which all that we know of Pre-islamic Arabia. This task has already been performed with admirable skill by Caussin de Perceval in his Essai sur Vhistoire des Arabes avant P Islamisme,3 and it could serve no useful purpose to inflict a dry summary of that famous work upon the reader.

The better course, I think, will be to select a few typical and outstanding features of the time and to present them, wherever possible, as they have been drawnlargely from imagination by the Arabs themselves. If the Arabian traditions are wanting in historical accuracy they are nevertheless, taken as a whole, true in spirit. The Kitdbu 'l-Aghdni has been published at Bulaq A.

A volume of biographies not contained in the Bulaq text was edited by R. Briinnow Leiden, i About the middle of the third century of our era Arabia was enclosed on the north and north-east by the rival empires of Rome and Persia, to which the Syrian desert, stretching right across the peninsula, formed a natural termination. In order to protect themselves from Bedouin raiders, who poured over the frontier-provinces, and after laying hands on all the booty within reach vanished as suddenly as they came, both Powers found it necessary to plant a line of garrisons along the edge of the wilderness.

Thus the tribesmen were partially held in check, but as force alone seemed an expensive and inefficient remedy it was decided, in accordance with the well- proved maxim, divide et impera, to enlist a number of the offending tribes in the Imperial service. Regular pay and the prospect of unlimited plunder for in those days Rome and Persia were almost perpetually war were inducements that at.

They fought, how- dynastiesofHira evcr, as free allies under their own chiefs or phylarchs. The Arabs soon showed what they were capable of when trained and disciplined in arms. His brilliant exploits were duly rewarded by the Emperor Gallienus, who bestowed on him the title of Augustus.

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He was, in fact, the. East when, a year later, he was treacherously murdered. He found a worthy successor in his wife, the noble and ambitious Zenobia, who set herself the task of building up a great Oriental Empire. She fared, however, no 4. For a moment the issue was doubtful, but Aurelian triumphed and the proud 'Queen of the East' was led a captive before his chariot through the streets of Rome a.

These events were not forgotten by the Arabs. It flattered their national pride to recall that once, at any rate, Roman armies had marched under the flag of an Arabian princess But the legend, as told in their traditions, has little in common with reality. The first king of the Arab settlers in 'Iriq Babylonia i is said to have been Mdlik the Azdite, who was accidentally shot with an arrow by his son, Sulayma.

Before Malik the Azdite. U'alliniuhu 'l-rimdyata kulla yawnt'" falamma 'shtadda sd'iduhii ramdni. He reigned as the vassal of Ardashir Bdbakdn, the founder a. See p. His pride, it is said, was so overweening that he would suffer no boon-companions except two stars called al-Farqadin, and when he drank wine he used to pour out a cup for each of them. He had a page, 'Adl b. Nasr, with whom his sister fell. Next morning, furious at the trick which had been played upon him, he beheaded the unlucky bride- groom and reviled his sister for having married a slave.

Nevertheless, when a son was born, Jadhlma adopted the boy, and as he grew up regarded him with the utmost affection. One day the youthful 'Amr suddenly disappeared. For a long time no trace of him could be found, but at last he was dis-. Overjoyed at the sight, Jadhima promised to grant them whatever they asked.

They chose the honour, which no mortal had hitherto obtained, of being his boon- companions, and by this title nadmdnd Jadhlma they are known to fame. Jadhfma was a wise and warlike prince. In one of his expeditions he defeated and slew 'Amr b. Zarib b. Hassdn b. Udhayna, an Arab chieftain who had brought part of Eastern Syria and Mesopotamia under his sway, and who, as the name Udhayna indicates, is probably identical with Odenathus, the husband of Zenobia.

Zarib and was. It is odd that in the Arabic version of the. However this. As a safeguard against attack she built two strong castles on either bank of the Euphrates and connected them by a subterranean tunnel ; she made one fortress her own residence, while her sister, Zaynab, occupied the other. Having thus secured her position she determined to take vengeance on Jadhima. She wrote to him that the sceptre was slipping from her feeble grasp, that she found no man worthy of her except himself, that she desired to unite her kingdom with his by marriage, and begged him to come and see her.

Jadhima needed no urging. Deaf to the warnings of his friend and counsellor, Qasir, he started from Baqqa, a castle on the Euphrates. When they had travelled some distance, Qasir implored him to return. On approaching their destination the king saw with alarm squadrons of cavalry between him and the city, and said to Qasir, "What is the prudent course? Mount al-'Asa" Jadhima's favourite mare "for she cannot be overtaken or outpaced, and rejoin your troops while there is yet time. Presently he was surrounded by the cavalry and captured. Qasir, however, sprang on the mare's back and galloped thirty miles without drawing rein.

When Jadhima was brought to Zabba she seated him on a skin of leather and ordered her maidens to open the veins in his arm, so that his blood should flow into a golden bowl. I want it as a cure for madness. Now Qasir came to 'Amr b. The queen believed what she saw, welcomed him, and gave him money to trade on her behalf. Qasir hastened to the palace of 'Amr at Hira, and, having obtained permission to ransack the royal treasury, he returned laden with riches.

Thus he gradually crept into the confidence of Zabba, until one day he said to her " It behoves every king and queen to pro- :. His project was now ripe for execution. With the help of 'Amr he fitted out a caravan of a thousand camels, each carrying two armed men concealed in sacks.

When they drew near the city of Zabba, Qasir left them and rode forward to announce their arrival to the queen, who from the walls of her capital viewed the long train of heavily burdened camels and marvelled at the slow pace with which they advanced. As the last camel passed through the gates of the city the janitor pricked one of the sacks with an ox-goad which he had with him, and hearing a cry of pain, exclaimed, " By God, there's mischief in the sacks " But it was too late. Zabba sought to escape by the tunnel, but Qasir stood barring the exit on the further side of the stream.

She hurried back, and there was 'Amr facing her. Resolved that her enemy should not taste the sweetness of vengeance, she sucked her seal-ring, which contained a deadly poison, crying, " By my own hand, not by 'Amr's " '! In the kingdoms of HIra and Ghassdn Pre-islamic culture attained its highest development, and from these centres it.

Some account, therefore, of their history and of the circum- stances which enabled them to assume a civilising role will. Tabari, i, ; Mas'iidi, Muruju 'l-Dhahab ed. Rothstein, Die Dynastic der Lahmiden in al-Hira Berlin, , where the sources of information are set forth p.

The incidental references to contemporary events in Syriac and Byzantine writers, who often describe what they saw with their own eyes, are. While part of the intruders continued to lead a nomad life, others engaged in agriculture, and in course of time villages and towns grew up. The most important of these was Hfra properly, al-Hfra, i. Muhammadan general histories usually contain sections, more or less mythical in character, "On the Kings of Hira and Ghassan.

Muhammad al-Kalbi, which is preserved by Tabari and has been translated with a masterly commentary by Noldeke in his Geschichte der Perser wid Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden. Hisham had access to the archives kept in the churches of Hira, and claims to have extracted therefrom many genealogical and chronological details relating to the Lakhmite dynasty Tabari, i, , 7.

Naturally the townsmen proper formed by far the most influential element in the population, Hishdm, as we have seen,' calls them ' the 'Ibid. It cannot be determined at what epoch the name was first used to distinguish the religious community, composed of members of dijfFerent tribes, which was dominant in Hira during the sixth century. Dates are compara- tively of little importance ; what is really remarkable is the existence in Pre-islamic times of an Arabian community that was not based on blood-relationship or descent from a common ancestor, but on a spiritual principle, namely, the profession of a common faith.

The religion and culture of the 'Ibdd were conveyed by various channels to the inmost recesses of the peninsula, as will be shown more fully in a subsequent chapter. They were the schoolmasters of the heathen Arabs, who could seldom read or write, and who, it. Nevertheless, the best minds among the Bedouins were irresistibly attracted to Hlra.

Poets in those days found favour with princes. A great number of Pre-islamic bards visited the Lakhmite court, while some, like Ndbigha and 'Abid b. It is unnecessary to enter into the vexed question as to the origin and rise of the Lakhmite dynasty at yira. Nasr The Lakhmites. Lakhm, the same who was adopted t r i i i i. Almost nothing is known of his successors until we come to Nu'mdn I, surnamed al-A'war the One-eyed , whose reign falls in the first quarter of the fifth.

Nu'man is renowned in legend as the builder of Khawarnaq, a famous castle near Hfra. It was built at the instance of the Sdsdnian king, Yazdigird I,. Prince Bahrim Gor. On its completion, Nu'mdn ordered the architect, a ' Roman ' z.. One spring day so the story is told Nu'mdn sat with his Vizier in Khawarnaq, which overlooked the Fen-land al-Najar , with its neighbouring gardens and plantations of palm-trees and canals, to the west, and the Euphrates to the east.

Charmed by the beauty of the prospect, he exclaimed, " Hast thou ever seen the like of. This legend seems to have grown out of the following verses by 'Adl b. In yonder tombs they lie this many a year. At last they were like unto withered leaves Whirled by the winds away in wild career.

The opinion of most Arabian authors, that Nu'mdn embraced Christianity, is probably unfounded, but there is reason to believe that he wras well disposed towards it, and that his. Christian subjects a Bishop of Hira is mentioned as early as A,D. Nu'mdn's place was filled by his son Mundhir, an able and energetic prince.

Passing over several obscure reigns, we arrive at the beginning of the sixth century, when another Mundhir, the third and most illustrious of his b! This is he whom the Arabs called Mundhir b. Md' al-samd. The Persian grandees complained that he had the manners and appearance of the Arabs among whom he had grown up Tabari, i, , 7.

About a. On his death the Kindite confederacy was broken up, but towards the year was re-established it. Meanwhile, in Persia, the communistic doctrines of Mazdak had obtained wide popularity among the lower classes, and were finally adopted by King Kawddh himself. Mundhir out of his kingdom ; and it seems not impossible that, as many historians assert, the latter's down-. At any rate, whatever the causes may have been, Mundhir was temporarily supplanted by Harith, and although he was restored after a short interval, before the accession of Amishirwdn, who, as Crown Prince, carried out a wholesale massacre of the followers of Mazdak a.

Harith himself was defeated and slain by Mundhir in Thereafter the power of Kinda sank, and they were gradually forced back to their original settlements in Hadramavvt. Jabala Harith al-A'raj , in whom Mundhir at last found more than his match. From this time onward the kings of Hira and Ghassin are continually raiding and plundering each other's territory. In one of his expedi- tions Mundhir captured a son of Hirith, and " immediately sacrificed him to Aphrodite " i. MundWr ni. IS known proverbially as ' The Day of Halima.

On the whole, the Lakhmites were a heathen and barbarous race, and these epithets are richly deserved by Mundhir III. It is related in the Aghdnl that he had two boon-companions, Khalid b. Mas'ild, with whom he used to carouse ; and once, being irritated by words spoken in wine, he gave orders that they should be buried alive.


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Next morning he did not recollect what had passed and inquired as usual for his friends. On learning the truth he was filled with remorse. He caused two obelisks to be erected over their graves, and two he would come and sit beside "Good Day and days in every year. The other day was the Day of Evil [yawmu bu's'" , on which he would present the first-comer with the head of a black polecat zaribdn , then sacrifice him and smear the obelisks with his blood.

It continued until the doom fell upon a certain Hanzala of Tayyi', who was granted a year's grace in order to regulate his affairs, on condition that he should find a surety. He appealed to one of Mundhir's suite, Sharfk 'Amr, who b. Sharfk, whose mourning-woman had already begun to chant the dirge. Suddenly a rider was seen approaching, wrapped in a shroud and perfumed for burial.

A mourning-woman accompanied him. It was Hanzala. Mundhir marvelled at their loyalty, dismissed them with marks of honour, and abolished the custom which he had instituted. Most of the famous poets then living visited his court ; we shall see in the next chap- ter what relations he had with Tarafa, 'Amr b. Kulthim, and Harith b. He was a morose, passionate, and tyrannical man. The Arabs stood in great awe of him, but vented their spite none the less. Hind, who acts unjustly and wrongfully. Kulthum, in vengeance for an insult offered to his mother, Layld.

It is sufficient to mention the names of Qabus and. She was a Christian, and founded a monastery at Hira. See Noldeke's translation of Tabari, p. Mundhir IV, both of whom were sons of Hind, and occu- pied the throne for short periods. He was brought up and educated by a noble Christian family in Hira, the head of which was Zayd b. Hammdd, father of the poet 'Adi b. Both his father and grandfather were men of unusual culture, who held high posts in the civil administration under Mundhir III and his successors. Zayd, moreover, through the good oiSces of a dihqdn, or Persian landed proprietor, Farrukh-mdhdn by name, obtained from Khusraw Aniishirwdn an important and con- fidential appointment that of Postmaster ordinarily reserved for the sons of satraps.

He learned to write and speak Persian with complete facility and Arabic with the utmost elegance ; he versified, and his accomplish-. At the Persian court his personal beauty, wit, and readiness in reply so impressed Amishirwin that he took him into his service. He was entrusted with a mission to Constantinople, where he was honourably received ; and on his. On his father's death,. While staying at Hlra he fell. The story as told in the 'Book of Songs is too curious to be entirely omitted, though want of space prevents me from giving it in full.

It is related that Hind, who was one of the fairest women of her time, went to church on Thursday of Holy Week, three days after Palm Sunday, to receive the sacrament. He espied in church. Her maidens, who had seen him approaching, said nothing to their mistress, because one of them called Mariya was enamoured of 'Adi and knew no other way of making his acquaint- ance. When Hind saw him looking at herself, she was highly displeased and scolded her handmaidens and beat some of them. At the end of that time Mariya, thinking that Hind had forgotten what passed, described the church of Thoma St.

Thomas and the nuns there and the girls who frequented it, and the beauty of the building and of the lamps, and said to her, " Ask thy mother's leave to go. But this Hind was evidently a Bedouin woman, not the king's daughter. God, he is fairer than the lamps and all things else that thou seest. After exchanging a few words the lovers parted.

Mariya went to 'Adi and promised, if he would first gratify her wishes, to bring about his union with Hind. She lost no time in warning Nu'mdn that his daughter was desperately in love with 'Adi and would either disgrace herself or die of grief unless he gave her to him. Nu'man, however, was too proud to make overtures to 'Adi, who on his part feared to anger the prince by proposing an alliance.

The ingenious Mariya found a way out of the difficulty. She sug- gested that 'Adi should invite Nu'man and his suite to a banquet, and having well plied him with wine should ask for the hand of his daughter, which would not then be refused. On the death of Mundhir IV 'Adi warmly supported the claims of Nu'man, who had formerly been his pupil and was ,, ,, 'Adi secures the ,. Mundhir, one of the defeated candidates, resolved on vengeance. Their intrigues awakened. Hurmuz waa satisfied with this answer and conferred the crown upon Nu'man. Apparently reconciled to Nu'man, he was none the less bent on vengeance, and only waited for an opportunity.

Zayd therefore approached the Chosroes and said : " I know that Nu'man has in his family a number of women answering to the description. Let me go to him, and send with me one of thy guardsmen who understands Arabic. On learning the object of his mission, Nu'mdn exclaimed with indignation : " What are not the gazelles of Persia suflScient!


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Soon afterwards he sent for Nu'mdn,. He was the patron of Character of many Celebrated poets, and especially of Ndbigha Nu'manni. Dhubydni, who was driven from HIra in con- sequence of a false accusation. This episode, as well as. He had married his step-mother, Mutajarrida, a great beauty in her time ; but though he loved her passionately, she bestowed her affections elsewhere. Nibigha was suspected on account of a poem in which he described the charms of the queen with the utmost minuteness, but Munakhkhal was the real culprit. The lovers were surprised by Nu'man, and from that day Munakhkhal was never seen again.

Hence the proverb, " Until Munakh- khal shall return," or, as we might say, " Until the coming of the Coqcigrues. Nu'man s education would naturally pre- dispose him to Christianity, and his conversion may have been wrought, as the legend asserts, by his mentor 'Adf b. Ibn Qutayba in Briinnow's Chrestomathy, pp.

You can give it to Leliana just like any other gift. Precious Metals is a great quest. If you want to get some really nice piece of gear, then this is your way to fortunes. Go into Dust Town and talk to Rogek. Only talk to him if you have 40 sovereigns! Rogek is a smuggler. He has a big shipment of lyrium to Godwin at the Circle Tower.

If you have any persuasion you should be able to get the lyrium for 40 gold. This is a good investment. Now, you should remember Godwin from the Circle Tower quest. Just kill him and take the 20 sovereigns off of his body. If you sided with the Templars in Broken Circle, then Godwin will have been killed as part of the cleansing. You might as well get two birds with one stone.

Godwin is waiting on the second floor, right by the same closet he was hiding in before. Talk to him and hand the lyrium over. You should be able to use persuasion to get more money out of him. Travel back to Rogek. You can talk him up to She apparently wants to study as a mage and bring the knowledge of lyrium forging to the mages. I suggest you pick up the Precious Metals quest if you can, since this will save you a trip to the Circle Tower. Now, if you chose the Templars, this is easy. Greagoir will not allow her to come no matter what.

So you can go and ask if you want and then just return the bad news. If you chose the mages, the First Enchanter Irving will be more open to it. You can then just tell Dagna the good news. Go ahead and ask for a reward. This quest is fairly easy, since the answer will basically fall right in your lap.

You can get this quest by talking to the dwarf woman, Filda. If you talk to her, she will ask you to please look for her son in the Deep Roads. When you go back to the surface, you can either tell her the truth or honor his wish. It all turns out about the same anyway. This woman is in the back area of Dust Town. It seems that she has given birth to a casteless child and her family has disowned her because of it.

You can offer to help.